By American Academy of Ophthalmology, Hermann D. Schubert MD
Presents an summary of the constitution and serve as of the retina and its dating to the pigment epithelium, choroid and vitreous. Describes the key vitreoretinal issues and applicable diagnostic tools and remedy principles.
In its final significant revision, part 12 used to be re-organized into 3 components. Separate chapters are actually dedicated to age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity, together with the most recent imaging innovations and choroidal aspect. chosen healing issues contain laser treatment and vitreoretinal surgery.
Upon final touch of part 12, readers can be capable to:
Select applicable tools of exam and ancillary experiences for the analysis of vitreoretinal disorders
Describe the rules of scientific and surgery of vitreoretinal disorders
Incorporate facts from significant potential scientific trials within the administration of chosen vitreoretinal problems
Read or Download 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 12: Retina and Vitreous PDF
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Extra info for 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 12: Retina and Vitreous
Amsterdam: Kugler; 1995. • CHAPTER 2 Diagnostic Approach to Retinal Disease Techniques of Examination Diagnosing retinal disease requires a combination of careful clinical examination and specialized imaging techniques. The macula can be examined without pupillary dilation, but to perform a complete retinal examination, the pupil should be fully dilated. 5% phenylephrine, and 1% cyclopentolate. In general, longer-acting dilating drugs are not required. The simplest examination technique is to use the direct ophthalmoscope, which provides an upright, monocular, high-magnification (lSx) image of the retina.
Clinicians can easily correct for the image reversal by turning the page upside down to draw the retina and the pathology as seen through the lens. Magnification of even the lowest power BIO lens is insufficient to evaluate subtle retinal changes or abnormalities of the vitreous body. To evaluate these structures, slit-lamp biomicroscopy is required. A variety oflenses are available for viewing the retina with the slit lamp; the type frequently used is the 3-mirror contact lens. Contact lenses offer the advantage of better stereopsis and higher resolution.
Redrawn from Federman JL, Gouras P, Schubert H, et al. Retina and vitreous. In: Podos SM. Yanoff M, eds. Textbook of Ophthalmology. Vol 9. illerian glia (Fig 1-8), This layer is continuous with the pigment epithelium of the ciliary body and iris. Each RPE cell has an apex and base, the apical portion enveloping the outer segments of the photoreceptor cell with villous processes. RPE cell are hexagonal, cuboidal cells approximately 16 µm in diameter. 1n the macula, however, the cells are taller and denser than in the periphery.