By R. D'Andrade
This learn analyzes American, Vietnamese, and jap own values, trying to know the way it may be ethnographers locate huge ameliorations in values among cultures, but empirical surveys locate rather small changes in own values among cultures. D’Andrade argues that folks stay in designated price worlds; the area of non-public values and the realm of institutionalized values. Assessing those worth worlds, D’Andrade is ready to clarify the distinction among ethnography and survey facts, whereas making important remark on American, Vietnamese, and eastern tradition. With perception and precision, this publication contributes to the $64000 debate that the tradition, brain, and Society sequence has initiated.
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Additional info for A Study of Personal and Cultural Values: American, Japanese, and Vietnamese (Culture, Mind and Society)
98 found for the relation between the two for the group means. For all practical purposed the ratings are identical. ” to “How important is ___ to you” with respect to component loadings and correlations across item means, it seems clear that the results would be the same if the questionnaires had all used the importance scale. It is interesting that the term value does not seem to have universal currency, and that ratings of importance are equivalent to ratings of value. ). Looking at the principal components analyses of rating scales one can see that there are a number of the phrases which have almost identical loadings.
However, the major problem that emerged was simply the results. In chapters 4 and 5 these results are presented at length. Suffice it to say here that (1) only three dimensions were discovered; (2) no culturally unique dimensions were discovered; (3) the differences between the Americans, the Vietnamese, and the Japanese were very much smaller than expected. The most dissonant finding was the small size of the differences between societies. 34 of a standard deviation (computed from d scores for all pairs of societies for all 328 items).
This affects the correlations between items because if some people use only the high end of the scales and some use only the low end, the correlations between items will be inflated. This is a common problem with rating scales, and one of the reasons that some researchers on values prefer to use rankings rather than ratings. Ipsatization One technique for reducing the effects of differences in how individuals use scales is to ipsatize the data. The term ipsatization is a stranger to most dictionaries.