By John Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, Jonathan Zittrain, Ronald J. Deibert
Many nations world wide block or filter out net content material, denying entry to information--often approximately politics, but additionally when it comes to sexuality, tradition, or religion--that they deem too delicate for traditional electorate. entry Denied records and analyzes web filtering practices in over 3 dozen nations, providing the 1st conscientiously carried out examine of this accelerating trend.
Internet filtering happens in not less than 40 states world wide together with many nations in Asia and the center East and North Africa. similar net content material keep watch over mechanisms also are in position in Canada, the U.S. and a cluster of nations in Europe. Drawing on a just-completed survey of world web filtering undertaken via the OpenNet Initiative (a collaboration of the Berkman middle for net and Society at Harvard legislation university, the Citizen Lab on the collage of Toronto, the Oxford net Institute at Oxford collage, and the collage of Cambridge) and counting on paintings by way of neighborhood specialists and an in depth community of researchers, entry Denied examines the political, felony, social, and cultural contexts of web filtering in those states from a number of views. Chapters speak about the mechanisms and politics of web filtering, the strengths and barriers of the expertise that powers it, the relevance of foreign legislations, moral issues for companies that provide states with the instruments for blocking off and filtering, and the results of net filtering for activist groups that more and more depend upon web applied sciences for speaking their missions.
Reports on web content material law in 40 various international locations stick to, with each one kingdom profile outlining the kinds of content material blocked by way of type and documenting key findings.
* bankruptcy 1: Measuring worldwide net Filtering
* bankruptcy 2: net Filtering: The Politics and Mechanisms of Control
* bankruptcy three: instruments and expertise of net Filtering
* bankruptcy four: Filtering and the foreign method: a query of Commitment
* bankruptcy five: Reluctant Gatekeepers: company Ethics on a Filtered Internet
* bankruptcy 6: sturdy for Liberty, undesirable for safety? international Civil Society and the Securitization of the web
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Extra resources for Access Denied: The Practice and Policy of Global Internet Filtering
5). Pervasive filtering is defined as blocking that spans a number of categories while blocking access to a large portion of related content. Substantial filtering is assigned where either a number of categories are subject to a medium level of filtering in at least a few categories or a low level of filtering is carried out across many categories. Selective filtering is either narrowly defined filtering that blocks a small number of specific sites across a few categories, or filtering that targets a single category or issue.
To account for the generality of these categories, each Internet Filtering: The Politics and Mechanisms of Control 39 of the installations of filtering software we observed appears to allow a state to augment a commercial block list with its own URLs. Aside from such fine tuning, however, states using commercial filtering services must choose between allowing or blocking all URLs within a category.
In 2006, we tested thousands of Web sites across more than 120 ISPs in 40 countries, creating a database with close to 200,000 observations. Each observation is in turn based on the conclusion of an average of ten accessibility tests. 5 Summary of filtering Political Social Conflict and security Internet tools Azerbaijan f — — — Bahrain ff f — f Belarus b b — — China fff ff fff ff Ethiopia ff f f f India Iran — fff — fff f ff f fff Jordan f — — — Kazakhstan b — — — Libya ff — — — Morocco — — f f Myanmar fff ff ff ff Oman — fff — ff Pakistan Saudi Arabia f ff ff fff fff f f ff — Singapore — f — South Korea — f fff — Sudan — fff — ff Syria fff f f ff Tajikistan f — — — Thailand f ff — f Tunisia United Arab Emirates fff f fff fff f f ff ff Uzbekistan ff f — f Vietnam fff f — ff Yemen f fff f ff fff Pervasive filtering; ff Substantial filtering; f Selective filtering; b Suspected filtering; — No evidence of filtering.