By W.-E Kalisch, K. Hägele (auth.), Seppo Lakovaara (eds.)
In 1906 fort, chippie, Clarke, Mast, and Barrows released a paper entitled "The results of inbreeding, cross-breeding, and choice upon the fertility and variability of Drosophila." this text, fifty five pages lengthy and released within the complaints of the Amer ican Academy, defined experiments played with Drosophila ampe lophila Lov, "a small dipterous insect recognized below numerous renowned names akin to the little fruit fly, pomace fly, vinegar fly, wine fly, and pickled fruit fly." This learn, which used to be all started in 1901 and released in 1906, was once the 1st released experimental learn utilizing Drosophila, therefore referred to as Drosophila melanogaster Meigen. in fact, Drosophila used to be identified ahead of the experiments of Cas tles's crew. The small flies swarming round grapes and wine pots have definitely been often called lengthy as wine has been produced. the glory of what used to be the 1st identified misclassification of the fruit flies is going to Fabricius who named them Musca funebris in 1787. It was once the Swedish dipterist, C.F. Fallen, who in 1823 replaced the identify of ~ funebris to Drosophila funebris which used to be heralding the start of the genus Drosophila. Present-day Drosophila examine was once all started simply eighty years in the past and primary released simply seventy five years in the past. even supposing the background of Drosophila learn is brief, the effect and quantity of research on Drosophila has been super over the past decades.
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Extra info for Advances in Genetics, Development, and Evolution of Drosophila
Moscow, (in press). F. ), 13:477. F. , 1980, Spontaneous interchanges in females of Drosophila melanogaster. Part 1: Formation of halftranslocation in XX and XXY females, Theor. Appl. , 56:161. F. , 1981, Meiotic asynapsis of centromeric regions and its effects on crossing-over and chromosome distribution in Drosophila females, Dokl. Acad. ), (in press). D§vring, L. , 1973, Female meiosis and embryonic mitosis in Drosophila melanogaster, Hereditas, 73:51. ) Acad. Sci. ), 25:157. Nokka~S. , 1976, Cytological evidence for a chromocenter in Drosophila melanogaster oocytes, Hereditas, 83:265.
5) Chromosomes can be compared with respect to the degree of gene activity or the number of active loci. Chromosome E is the most active, followed by chromosomes U, 0 and J, and last the sex chromosome A. However, chromosomes J and U were found to have the largest puffs, followed by A and 0, and chromosome E clearly had the smallest puffs. PUFFING ACTIVITY IN THE POLYTENE CHROMOSOMES 45 (6) An increase of gene activity may in general be observed at the beginning of pupation. Depending on the chromosome, the peak of maximum activity varies slightly.
The results demonstrated that experimental stUdies of spontaneous interchanges in Drosophila are possible. Evidence supporting the suggested relationship between nonhomologous pairing and interchange was provided. However, the interchanges we observed occurred during mitosis. The question was, whether these interchanges also take place during meiosis? Distribution pattern of the nonhomologues is often non-random during meiosis, one could thus expect meiotic nonhomologous pairing and, consequently, meiotic interchanges.