By Henny Klein
Adverbs of measure shape an fascinating a part of the lexicon: a variety of, multiform and everchanging. in addition they exhibit an exceptional sort in distribution. during this learn, the features of adverbs of measure are investigated from a semantic standpoint. the main target is on Dutch, yet earlier stories approximately English and German adverbs of measure are used to check with and to construct on.
The booklet begins with an advent on grading and gradability, and a type of the adverbs in response to the measure they show. subsequent, the several lexical assets from which the adverbs emerge and the method of grammaticalization are mentioned. the most a part of the booklet is dedicated to semantic regulations at the use of adverbs of measure, at the one hand regulations about the changed components, nonetheless these about the setting. themes contain absoluteness as opposed to gradability, confident as opposed to unfavourable overview, the strengthening of negation, polarity sensitivity, the logical houses of the adverbs themselves, and regulations to reduplication and stacking.
Besides the most textual content, 3 case reports are offered within which the pecularities of a few of the adverbs are investigated extensive, to teach extra intimately to complexities in their distribution. The appendix offers an summary of Dutch adverbs of measure.
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Additional resources for Adverbs of Degree in Dutch and Related Languages
In table 2, an overview of the Dutch completives is given. As indicated, many of them may express an absolute as well as an extremely high degree. In other languages as well, completives may fulfil different functions. Wellknown examples are quite in English, and ganz in German. According to Van Os (1988: 176), ganz has three different meanings: it functions as completive before absolute adjectives, but may also indicate a high degree, whereas in the modification of predicates with a moderately positive or slightly negative connotation it seems to indicate only a minimal degree.
Hoe - noodzakelijk is het? ' + + ? - ze is zo - aardig 'she is so - nice' - - + - het is zo - noodzakelijk 'it is so - necessary' + 7 ? - hoe aardig is ze? - aardig! 'how nice is she? ' - - + - hoe noodzakelijk is het? - noodz.! 'how necessary is it? ' + + ? - (50) - - Welnee, hij is niet ECHT ziek, hij wilde de match zien 'Oh no! He is not really ill, he wanted to see the match' However, if either the predicate is stressed, or both the adverb and the predicate are, a grading function is present (compare example (47)): 49 THE ORIGIN (51) Hij is niet echt/ ECHT ZIEK, maar hij heeft wat verhoging 'He is not really ill, but he has a slight temperature' Especially the unstressed niet echt is unambiguously interpreted as a degree modifier.
Table 5: Testing the grading function of some modal adverbs absoluut beslist echt werkelijk inderdaad hoe - aardig is ze? ' - - - - hoe - noodzakelijk is het? ' + + ? - ze is zo - aardig 'she is so - nice' - - + - het is zo - noodzakelijk 'it is so - necessary' + 7 ? - hoe aardig is ze? - aardig! 'how nice is she? ' - - + - hoe noodzakelijk is het? - noodz.! 'how necessary is it? ' + + ? - (50) - - Welnee, hij is niet ECHT ziek, hij wilde de match zien 'Oh no! He is not really ill, he wanted to see the match' However, if either the predicate is stressed, or both the adverb and the predicate are, a grading function is present (compare example (47)): 49 THE ORIGIN (51) Hij is niet echt/ ECHT ZIEK, maar hij heeft wat verhoging 'He is not really ill, but he has a slight temperature' Especially the unstressed niet echt is unambiguously interpreted as a degree modifier.