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By Philoponus

In a single of the main unique books of overdue antiquity, Philoponus argues for the Christian view that subject may be created by means of God out of not anything. It wishes no past topic for its production. while, Philoponus transforms Aristotle's belief of best subject as an incorporeal 'something - i do know now not what' that serves because the final topic for receiving extension and characteristics. to the contrary, says Philoponus, the final word topic is extension. it truly is 3-dimensional extension with its designated dimensions and any traits unspecified. in addition, such extension is the defining attribute of physique. consequently, to this point from being incorporeal, it truly is physique, and in addition to being best subject, it really is shape - the shape that constitutes physique. This makes use of, yet fullyyt disrupts, Aristotle's conceptual gear. eventually, in Aristotle's scheme of different types, this extension isn't really to be categorised lower than the second one classification of volume, yet lower than the 1st classification of substance as a considerable volume. This quantity comprises an English translation of Philoponus' statement, precise notes and creation, and a bibliography.

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Extra info for Against Proclus On the Eternity of the World 9-11 (Ancient Commentators on Aristotle)

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If, on the other hand, it too is generated, it in turn will have come to be out of something else, and so on ad infinitum. From this they conclude that if [such a regress] is impossible, it is impossible for the cosmos to be generated; and so it will be ungenerated. These, then, are the arguments by means of which one might support the view that everything that comes to be comes to be from something [already] in being and that nothing comes to be from absolute non-being and that the cosmos is therefore ungenerated; the things that one might say in response to them follow.

If this were so, children too would obviously be regarded as shared, not in the same way that property and women are shared, for that would be impossible, but because, since nobody would know which children were his as a result of the unrestricted intercourse of the women, they will regard all of the children as shared and make the pleasures and pains associated with them their own. And he decrees that ‘subtle’ lotteries should be held, not, as some, ashamed at the wickedness of the law, have pretended, so that one and the same woman can always be allotted to each man, but clearly, as one can see from the passage from Plato which we have already quoted, so that, without knowing what is going on, the good men will each draw a different good woman on each occasion and the inferior men a different inferior woman, with the result that the citizens, believing that this is the outcome of chance and not of the planning of the rulers, will not be at odds with them because the baser men want, as is probable, to have the good women.

Similarly, what is actually white163 is the whitened body itself, as for instance [a piece of] whitened linen, whereas the actuality of whiteness, or, as Aristotle puts it, the entelechy, is the form of whiteness itself, which has supervened in the body; for that which has shared in such an actuality is said to be ‘actually’ white, the word [‘actually’] being employed in the dative case. And this is so in all other cases. 164 For when the white body perished, the actuality or form of whiteness itself either remained or did not remain in the substrate.

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