By Nelson Butters
• Edit date: 1980 • writer: educational Press. Inc • ISBN: 0-12-148380-0 • writer: Nelson Butters/Laird S. Cermak • Preface/Forward: by way of the authors • No. Pages: 188
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Additional info for Alcoholic Korsakoff's Syndrome. An Information-Processing Approach to Amnesia
This method, called the study-test method, also presents the pairs in different orders from trial to trial, but tests at the conclusion of each presentation trial rather than during the trial itself. SERIAL LEARNING Serial learning differs from P-A learning in one important way, that is, the order of presentation must be learned rather than associative units. , 12 words) and to note not only what material is presented but also the order in which it is presented. Following the initial presentation trial, the patient is told that his task will be to try to anticipate each item in the list just prior to its presentation.
Apparently the "episode" of having just previously searched a particular category was already lost by the time it was probed again, even when the probe occurred on two adjacent trials. This implies that the "preactivation" described by Collins and Loftus (1975) is probably nothing more than normal memory for a recently completed search. The results from these studies on semantic memory raise two important points in addition to those already cited. First, although the alcoholic Korsakoff patients' search of semantic conceptual memory is slower than normal (indicating perhaps an element of disorganized search), nevertheless, they did respond correctly as often as the normals.
A similar suggestion has been made by Waugh and Barr (1978) in describing why the aged can retain remote memories so well. MOTOR MEMORY One other type of memory that borders on becoming automatic once it is learned, is motor memory. Driving a car, riding a bicycle, swimming, all seem to be retrievable at any time with little or no conscious effort, and certainly without the need to verbalize. To evaluate the intactness of motor learning and retention in alcoholic Korsakoff patients, two experiments have been performed: a fingermaze task and a rotary-pursuit task.