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By Bruce McCune, James Grace

Research of Ecological groups bargains a purpose and assistance for choosing acceptable, potent, analytical equipment in group ecology.

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Further south, a more heterogeneous vegetation cover results in smaller home ranges, down to 100 ha or less. No correlation has been observed between group size and home-range size, but the aggregation of groups into larger units appears to be more common in the north. Pollock (1980) presents no data for range size of mares or mare groups, although he cites areas of 140 ha and 125 ha for two stallion groups. g. Klingel 1974; Feist and McCullough 1976). For two harem groups of free-ranging Exmoor ponies, Gates (1979) records range sizes of between 240 ha and 290 ha but notes that most activity was in fact restricted to a core area of only 45-60 ha.

Thus, an index THE GRAZERS Number of animals observed in community A Area of A x 53 Total area surveyed Total number of observations in all vegetation types will equal 1 if animals are evenly spread across all vegetation types, will be > 1 if positive preference is shown for a particular community, and < 1 if the community is avoided. 5, this index is presented as a logarithm; this adjusts the values to a more easily visualised scale so that a score of zero now represents no preference, while any positive number is positive preference and any actual avoidance will appear as a negative value in the tables.

Dubium and T. micranthum (yellow 44 THE GRAZERS trefoils) and Lotus corniculatus (bird's-foot-trefoil). Many lawns show some signs of recolonisation by bracken (Pteridium aquilinum), heather (Calluna vulgaris) and gorse ( Ulex europaeus), although these species are not usually vigorous. Commoners' improved areas (a total of about 260 ha within the Forest as a whole, mainly in the south) were derived originally from native acid grassland. The grasslands were swiped to cut back the bracken, and then treated with lime, phosphate and other fertilisers as part of a limited scheme of pasture improvement carried out between 1969 and 1971.

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