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By John Imbrie, Norman Newell (editors)

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Ella, an inner shelf species characterized by a double row of sutural pores, is mostly restricted to the central and northern temperate regions and to the Arctic Ocean. Occurrence of these forms in the central and outer shelf areas is brought about by displacement or by expansion of brackish waters fartLer seaward'than usual. Deep water forms such asVirgulina nodos& R. E. and K. C. Stewart occurln similar depths of the Aictic Ocean and in the temperate and tropical regions of the Paciffc Ocean, always characteristic of the bathyal zone, but with somewhat different upper levels of occurrence.

Tellina, Anodonta), the condition is similar, with the neutral axis lying between the curved outer layer and the inner. However in the alivincular ligament of, for example, Ostrea, the neutral axis does not couespond to the division between outer and inner layers, but the only part of the inner layer rvhich is functional is situated belorv the axis ( Figure 7 ), that part above is subjected to tensile stress and becomes fractured. Indeed, the fibrous structure of the inner layer appears unsuited to withstand lateral tension, and fractures occur between the fibers.

32, pp. J. r56_187. Am. BuIl,, v. 33, pp. 315. Smith, H. , 1932, Water regulation and its evolution in the ffshcs: Quart, Reo. 7, pp. 1-96. , 1950, Reproductive and larval ecology of marine bottom invertebrates: BioI. 25, pp. I45. Truentan, A. , 1941, The ammonite body-chambervvith special referenceto the buoyancy and mode of life of the living ammonite: Quart. J. Geol, Soc. , v. 96, pp. 339-383. 1942, Supposedcommensalismof Carboniferousspirorbids and certain nonmarine lamellibranchs: Ccol. ,v.

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